Monday, 20 February 2017

Interview Q & A: HTML Programming

Hi there!! We know how difficult to crack an interview. It's doesn't matters if you are experts of you subjects or not, a last minute revision is must for all of us.
Here we are providing some selected questions to help you to the last minutes revision.  Best of luck!!

What is HTML?
HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, is a Universal language which allows an individual using special code to create web pages to be viewed on the Internet.

HTML ( H yper T ext M arkup L anguage) is the language used to write Web pages. You are looking at a Web page right now. 
You can view HTML pages in two ways:
* One view is their appearance on a Web browser, just like this page -- colors, different text sizes, graphics.
* The other view is called "HTML Code" -- this is the code that tells the browser what to do.

What is a tag? 
In HTML, a tag tells the browser what to do. When you write an HTML page, you enter tags for many reasons -- to change the appearance of text, to show a graphic, or to make a link to another page.

What is the simplest HTML page? 
HTML Code:
<TITLE>This is my page title! </TITLE>
This is my message to the world!

Browser Display:
This is my message to the world!

How do I create frames? What is a frameset
Frames allow an author to divide a browser window into multiple (rectangular) regions. Multiple documents can be displayed in a single window, each within its own frame. Graphical browsers allow these frames to be scrolled independently of each other, and links can update the document displayed in one frame without affecting the others. 
You can't just "add frames" to an existing document. Rather, you must create a frameset document that defines a particular combination of frames, and then display your content documents inside those frames. The frameset document should also include alternative non-framed content in a NOFRAMES element. 
The HTML 4 frames model has significant design flaws that cause usability problems for web users. Frames should be used only with great care.

How can I include comments in HTML? 
Technically, since HTML is an SGML application, HTML uses SGML comment syntax. However, the full syntax is complex, and browsers don't support it in its entirety anyway. Therefore, use the following simplified rule to create HTML comments that both have valid syntax and work in browsers:

An HTML comment begins with "<!--", ends with "-->", and does not contain "--" or ">" anywhere in the comment. 
The following are examples of HTML comments:

* <!-- This is a comment. -->
* <!-- This is another comment,
and it continues onto a second line. -->
* <!---->

Do not put comments inside tags (i.e., between "<" and ">") in HTML markup.

What is a Hypertext link? 
A hypertext link is a special tag that links one page to another page or resource. If you click the link, the browser jumps to the link's destination.

How comfortable are you with writing HTML entirely by hand?


Very. I don’t usually use WYSIWYG. The only occasions when I do use Dreamweaver are when I want to draw something to see what it looks like, and then I’ll usually either take that design and hand-modify it or build it all over again from scratch in code. I have actually written my own desktop HTML IDE for Windows (it’s called Less Than Slash) with the intention of deploying it for use in web development training. If has built-in reference features, and will autocomplete code by parsing the DTD you specify in the file. That is to say, the program doesn’t know anything about HTML until after it parses the HTML DTD you specified. This should give you some idea of my skill level with HTML.

What is everyone using to write HTML? 
Everyone has a different preference for which tool works best for them. Keep in mind that typically the less HTML the tool requires you to know, the worse the output of the HTML. In other words, you can always do it better by hand if you take the time to learn a little HTML.

What is a DOCTYPE? Which one do I use? 
According to HTML standards, each HTML document begins with a DOCTYPE declaration that specifies which version of HTML the document uses. Originally, the DOCTYPE declaration was used only by SGML-based tools like HTML validators, which needed to determine which version of HTML a document used (or claimed to use). 
Today, many browsers use the document's DOCTYPE declaration to determine whether to use a stricter, more standards-oriented layout mode, or to use a "quirks" layout mode that attempts to emulate older, buggy browsers.

Can I nest tables within tables? 
Yes, a table can be embedded inside a cell in another table. Here's a simple example: 

<td>this is the first cell of the outer table</td>
<td>this is the second cell of the outer table,

with the inner table embedded in it
<td>this is the first cell of the inner table</td>
<td>this is the second cell of the inner table</td>

The main caveat about nested tables is that older versions of Netscape Navigator have problems with them if you don't explicitly close your TR, TD, and TH elements. To avoid problems, include every </tr>, </td>, and </th> tag, even though the HTML specifications don't require them. Also, older versions of Netscape Navigator have problems with tables that are nested extremely deeply (e.g., tables nested ten deep). To avoid problems, avoid nesting tables more than a few deep. You may be able to use the ROWSPAN and COLSPAN attributes to minimize table nesting. Finally, be especially sure to validate your markup whenever you use nested tables.

Can I have two or more actions in the same form?
No. A form must have exactly one action. However, the server-side (e.g., CGI) program that processes your form submissions can perform any number of tasks (e.g., updating a database, sending email, logging a transaction) in response to a single form submission.

How can I use forms for pull-down navigation menus? 
There is no way to do this in HTML only; something else must process the form. JavaScript processing will work only for readers with JavaScript-enabled browsers. CGI and other server-side processing is reliable for human readers, but search engines have problems following any form-based navigation.

How can I avoid using the whole URL? 
The URL structure defines a hierarchy (or relationship) that is similar to the hierarchy of subdirectories (or folders) in the filesystems used by most computer operating systems. The segments of a URL are separated by slash characters ("/"). When navigating the URL hierarchy, the final segment of the URL (i.e., everything after the final slash) is similar to a file in a filesystem. The other segments of the URL are similar to the subdirectories and folders in a filesystem. 
A relative URL omits some of the information needed to locate the referenced document. The omitted information is assumed to be the same as for the base document that contains the relative URL. This reduces the length of the URLs needed to refer to related documents, and allows document trees to be accessed via multiple access schemes (e.g., "file", "http", and "ftp") or to be moved without changing any of the embedded URLs in those documents. 
Before the browser can use a relative URL, it must resolve the relative URL to produce an absolute URL. If the relative URL begins with a double slash (e.g., //, then it will inherit only the base URL's scheme. If the relative URL begins with a single slash (e.g., /faq/html/), then it will inherit the base URL's scheme and network location. 
If the relative URL does not begin with a slash (e.g., all.html , ./all.html or ../html/), then it has a relative path and is resolved as follows.

1. The browser strips everything after the last slash in the base document's URL and appends the relative URL to the result.
2. Each "." segment is deleted (e.g., ./all.html is the same as all.html, and ./ refers to the current "directory" level in the URL hierarchy).
3. Each ".." segment moves up one level in the URL hierarchy; the ".." segment is removed, along with the segment that precedes it (e.g., foo/../all.html is the same as all.html, and ../ refers to the parent "directory" level in the URL hierarchy). 

Some examples may help make this clear. If the base document is <URL:>, then

all.html and ./all.html
refer to <URL:> 
refers to <URL:> 
refers to <URL:> 
refers to <URL:> 
refers to <URL:> 

Please note that the browser resolves relative URLs, not the server. The server sees only the resulting absolute URL. Also, relative URLs navigate the URL hierarchy. The relationship (if any) between the URL hierarchy and the server's filesystem hierarchy is irrelevant.

No comments:

Post a Comment